09 May 2017

Mozart

Mozart was "Born in Salzburg, Austria on Jan. 27, 1756. His full name was Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgang’s Gottlieb Mozart. He was baptized as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart. He is named after his grandfather on his mother's side and after the Saint on his date of birth, Johannes Chrysostomus. His parents where Leopold Mozart, composer and violinist, concertmaster at the archiepiscopal court, and then in 1763, vice-Kapellmeister at Salzburg court. And his mother Anna Maria Pertl, daughter of Wolfgang Nikolaus Pertl, an official from Sankt Gilgen. And had one sibling named Maria Anna (Nannerl) Mozart.
He started playing the keyboard at age 3. And at age 5 he started composing minuets. And in 1763-1766 toured Europe with his father and sister played for Louis XV at Versailles and George III in

London. Than in 1764 wrote his first three symphonies and he also met Johann Christian Bach. By his teenage years, he mastered the piano, violin, and harpsichord. In 1768 completed first opera, La finta semplice (The Simple Pretense). Than in 1769-1773 made three trips to Italy. In Rome, there was a myth that Mozart attended the performance of Allegri's Misere. He wanted the score but when no one agreed he wrote down the music from memory. And in 1770 Mitridate, re di Ponte (Mithridates, King of Pontus) performed in Milan his first major opera.In 1772 appointed concertmaster in the orchestra of Archbishop of Salzburg. During this period, he wrote many sacred works. And in 1777 toured with his mother hoping to find a court position; traveled to Mannheim where he met and fell in love with Aloysia Weber. In 1778, July Anna Maria Mozart died. 1779 unable to find a court position, Mozart went back to Salzburg; appointed as court organist to the Archbishop of Salzburg. 1781 resigned from his position due to increasing tension and disagreements between Mozart and the Archbishop. Mozart stayed in Vienna instead of returning to Salzburg. Mozart's resignation and his move to Vienna put a strain in his relationship with his father.1782 married Constanze Weber in Vienna's St. Stephen's Cathedral. In Vienna, Mozart supported his family by performing in public and private, teaching, and composing. His first opera written after his residency in Vienna, Abduction from Seraglio became a success.1786 The Marriage of Figaro, the first of three operas Mozart collaborated with librettist, Lorenza da Ponte, premiered at the Burg Theater.
1787 became composer of Imperial and Royal Chamber with an annual salary of 800fl. His father, Leopold, died on May 28, 1787. Don Giovanni premiered in Prague at the National Theater.1790 Cosi fan tutte premiered at Burg Theater. Mozart declined an opportunity to compose in London.1791 composed dance music for the Vienna Court; publishers began to pay fees for the rights to publish his works; appointed assistant to the Cathedral Kapellmeister at St. Stephens with no pay. Mozart was already feeling ill in Prague while finishing La clemenza di Tito. Dec. 5, 1791, a few minutes before 1AM, Mozart died of rheumatic fever.
Mozart composed over 600 works including:21 stage and opera works, 15 Masses, over 50 symphonies, 25 piano concertos, 12 violin concertos, 27 concert arias, 17 piano sonatas, 26 string quartets, and many other pieces. His style was very unique, unlike many of the musical styles of his time. People did not appreciate his radical music because they did not understand Mozart's complex and extraordinary music. In his later years, Mozart incorporates many musical elements and style from different countries into his works. His late works include three of his most famous operas, The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, Cosi fan tutte, written in collaboration with Lorenza da Ponte and his last three church pieces, Mass in C Minor, Ave Verum Corpus, and Requiem. Both the Mass in C Minor and Requiem remain unfinished.
His Early Works included La finta semplice (1768), Bastien und Batienne (1768), and Mitridate, re di Ponto (1770). His Middle Works included Missa in C, Coronation Mass (1779). And his Late Works were Idomeneo, re di Creta (1781), The Abduction from Seraglio (1782), Mass in C minor (1783), The Marriage of Figaro (1786), Don Giovanni (1787), Cosi fan tutte (1790), La Clemenza di Tito (1791), The Magic Flute (1791), and Requiem (1791). And Mozart's Sacred Works: Missa, Kyre, Litanies and Vespers, Short Sacred Works.
During the late 1790, Mozart had many financial problems contributed by the following factors, decline in popularity from 1788 in Vienna, subscription concerts - from success in 1785 to only one subscribe, no savings from his most successful years 1785-86, steady increase in popularity in foreign countries. "His music was now circulating via performances and publications throughout Europe, especially in German-speaking regions and in France, where his words were frequently listed on the programs of the Concert Spiritual." (Maynard Solomon) However, there were no performance rights or copyright laws. Composer paid only for his service of physically playing or conducting what he composed. Constanze's numerous pregnancies and her health, numerous expenses for appearances at court functions, and supported a household of six including his son, Karl Thomas, the expected baby, Franz Xaver Wolfgang, and two servants.
However, during his last year, he slowly began to experience a reversal of fortune. Gradually middle class society and Schikaneder theatre vs. court opera and aristocratic salon relationship with his wife - loving, affectionate, and concerned with Constanze's heal than offer to go to London by British opera manager Robert May O'Reilly. May - became unpaid assistant to the cathedral Kapellmeister at St. Stephen's. If Mozart lived for more than two years, he would have been the next Kapellmeister with salary of 2000 fl. late 1791, offers from Dutch and Hungarian nobility to compose a few works, fees were received by Mozart for the publication and manuscript rights to some of his works
History of the Requiem (timeline). Feb. 14, Herr Franz, Count von Walsegg's wife passed away at the age of 20. Mid July, messenger (Franz Anton Leitgeb, Count's steward) arrived with note asking Mozart to write a Requiem Mass's fee and time plus response by messenger bring the advance fee. Mid July, commission from Domenico Guardasoni, Impresario of the Prague National Theater to compose the opera, La clemenza di Tito, for the festivities surrounding the coronation on Sept. 6 of Leopold II as King of Bohemia. August, works mainly on La clemenza di Tito; complete by Sept. 5 in 18 days. Aug. 25, Mozart leaves for Prague; messenger reappears; in Prague already started feeling ill. Sept. 6, Mozart conducts premiere of La clemenza di Tito. In Mid Sept. to Sept. 28 revision and completion of The Magic Flute. Sept. 30, premiere of The Magic Flute. Oct. 7, completed Concerto in A for Clarinet. Oct. 8 - Nov. 20, worked on the Requiem and a Cantata. Nov. 20, confined to the bed due to his illness. Dec. 5, shortly after midnight Mozart died of acute rheumatic fever. In Dec. 7, officially the 6th, buried in St. Marx Cemetery. Dec. 10, Requiem performed in St. Michael for a memorial for Mozart by Freihaus Theater. Early Mar. 1792, probably the time Sussmayer finished the Requiem. Evidence: Constanze signed a contract on Mar. 4, 1792, giving King.
Many people admired Mozart. "He was a passionate lover of music and the theatre; hence every week, on Tuesdays and Thursdays, each time fully three hours' long, quartets were played and on Sundays theatre, in which latter Herr Count himself, and Madame Countess and her unmarried Madame Sister, took part, as did all the officials and the entire, numerous household, all of whom had to play roles, each according to his or her capacities."(Herzog Anton)
Since private concerts were held so often, the Count wanted many different musical pieces to be performed during his Tuesday and Thursday sessions. The Count obtained many of these works by commissioning well known composers. After receiving the commissioned work he would recopy it in his own handwriting never noting the true composer.
Much of what is known today about Mozart comes either directly from correspondences about him, to him, and from him, or indirectly from biographers who gathered information from interviews with people close to him, such as his wife, Constanze, his works, and material from people who have come in contact with Mozart. The following is a brief summary of the early biographers who have tried to tell the story of Mozart's life.
Such as Friedrich Schlichtegroll were a teacher and a scholar. Mozart’s obituary was published in 1793.This obituary was part of a volume of obituaries referred to as Nekrolog. The two had never met. Most of the information was obtained from Nannerl, Mozart's sister, and Johann Andreas Schachtner, a friend of the family in Mozart's early years. Therefore what Schlichtegroll knew and wrote about was the period before Vienna.
Franz Xaver Niemetschek was a citizen of Prague, a teacher and writer. Unlike Schlichtegroll, Niemetschek did meet with Mozart and was acquainted with Mozart's friends in Prague. After the death of Mozart, Constanze sent Carl, the oldest son, to live with him from 1792-97. Through these relationships with the family, Niemetschek gathered the information needed to write a biography of Mozart. His main source was Constanze and Mozart's friends in Prague. Therefore his emphasis was on Mozart's years in Vienna and his many trips to Prague.
Friedrich Rochlitz was the editor of Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitwig (AMZ), a journal, which was published by Breitkopf & Hartel. Constanze had sent Rochlitzsome anecdotes to publish. At first she wanted him to do a biography but after meeting Nissen, she gave Nissen the opportunity instead. Most people believed that Rochlitz is an unreliable source.
ITFC Arnold, a novelist, wrote Mozart’s Geist, published in 1803. He takes most of the biography directly from the three sources already published. He does add in some new information. In 1828, Nissen published a biography of Mozart which included an appendix written by Constanze and J.H. Fewerstein after Nissen's death in 1826. Much of this biography included what had been previously written by Schlichtegroll, Niemetschek, and Rochlitz. And Vincent and Mary Novello's diary of their interviews during 1829 with Nannerl, Constanze, and Mozart's sister in law, was discovered and published in 1955. They were collecting this information in hopes of publishing a book, which never happened. Since almost forty years had gone by since Mozart's death, then these accounts might have been based more on already published biographies than on the participants' own memories.
The Mass in C minor was not a commissioned work. Since most of Mozart's work was written for money or for advancement in positions, then one wonders why he worked on this particular piece. He probably composed this piece to express his love for his wife as well as to reconcile with his family, Leopold and Nannerl. The composition of the Mass was exactly the opposite of the type of Mass the Archbishop of Salzburg directed. In June 1780, the Archbishop wrote that he wanted to eliminate complex forms of church music. In addition, after his reforms, the Salzburg style became limited to no longer than 45 minutes and no solo singing or fugue was permitted. This Mass was quite different then the Salzburg style. Not only did the Mass use baroque, classical, Salzburg, Viennese, and Italian music, but it was also longer than 45 minutes. He started composing the Mass during late 1782. It premiered in October 26, 1783 in St. Peter's Church. Constanze sang a solo part. Since the piece was not completed yet, Mozart used sections from his earlier masses to supplement the missing parts. The Mass includes Kyrie, Gloria, Credo (completed only to ET incarnates), and incomplete drafts of Sanctus and Benedictus. The four solo vocal parts are soprano I, soprano II, tenor, and bass. The instruments include: 2 bassoons, flute, 2 horns, 2 oboes, timpani, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, strings, and organ. Even though this work was never finished, parts of the music were used later on in Mozart's Davidde Penitente, a cantata.

Bibliography
Landon, H.C. Robbins. Mozart's 1791 Last Year
Solomon, Maynard. Mozart: A Life.
Stafford, William. The Mozart Myths.
Wolff, Christoph. Composition and Completion of the Requiem.